The following pages in our application notes offer detailed explanations of how to select imaging components and how to help integrate them into your specific application. Our examples are based on real life situations that our customers have encountered, and then consulted us for solutions. Using these examples, we can all learn more about using imaging as a real-world solution.
These notes are divided into sections based on the fundamentals of imaging systems. Throughout the Machine Vision section of our Online Catalog there are references to these pages for additional information on how the lens works and/or how it has been tested.
We hope you find this reference useful and we welcome any feedback or any additional application examples you would like to share.
- Section 1: Fundamental Parameters of an Imaging System
- Section 2: Image Quality
- Section 3: Specifying Resolution of System Components
- Section 4: Electronics
- 4.1: Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)
- 4.2: CCD Pixels
- 4.3: CCD Sensor Size
- 4.4: Analog vs. Digital CCD Cameras
- 4.5: Monochrome CCD Cameras
- 4.6: Color CCD Cameras
- 4.7: Interlaced vs. Progressive Scan
- 4.8: Frame Rate vs. Shutter Speed
- 4.9: Specifying CCD Resolution/Contrast
- 4.10: Pixel Depth/Grayscale
- 4.11: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
- 4.12: CCD Output Signal
- 4.13: Gain
- 4.14: Gamma
- 4.15: Capture Boards
- Section 5: Illumination
- Imaging Applications
Section 1: Fundamental Parameters of an Imaging System
Field of View (FOV): The viewable area of the object under inspection. In other words, this is the portion of the object that fills the camera's sensor.
Working Distance (WD): The distance from the front of the lens to the object under inspection.
Resolution: The minimum feature size of the object that can be distinguished by the imaging system (more in-depth discussion in Sect. 2.1)
Depth of Field (DOF): The maximum object depth that can be maintained entirely in focus. DOF is also the amount of object movement (in and out of best focus) allowable while maintaining a desired amount of focus (more in-depth discussion in Sect. 2.2).
Sensor Size: The size of a camera sensor's active area, typically specified in the horizontal dimension. This parameter is important in determining the proper lens magnification required to obtain a desired field of view. The primary magnification (PMAG) of the lens is defined as the ratio between the sensor size and the FOV. Although sensor size and field of view are fundamental parameters, it is important to realize that PMAG is not.
|Sensor Size (mm)|
|Field of View (mm)|
Note: typically, only horizontal values are used.
Figure 1: Illustration of
fundamental parameters of an
Figure 2: Illustration of primary
magnification and the relationship between
sensor size and FOV